Case Studies

SymSoil is a manufacturer of biologically active products, such as those described by
Dr. Elaine Ingham, Dr. David Johnson and others.
Citations can be found at the bottom of this page.

SymSoil Case Studies

Tomato Plant, Under Drought Conditions, SymSoil

European Vineyards with Biochar Case Study

Grass Land, Treated with Compost Tea, Various

Grasses, Treated with Compost Tea, SymSoil

Grassland case study 3

Engineered Soils to Reduce Irrigation Needs,  SymSoil

Biologic Farming, Case Studies

Grape larger

Grapes, Under Drought Conditions, Soil Food Web institute

Grapes Production with Actively Aerated Compost Tea (AACT), Sonoma County, Environment Celebration Institute

The complete soil microbe biome, with bacteria, archaea, fungi, multiple types of protozoa or protists (predominantly amoebae (amoeboids) and flagellates), beneficial nematodes, and microarthropods (insects). This is known as Robust Compost, Soil Food Web Compost, Biologically Active or Complete Compost and, sometimes, Living Soil.

The following citations are from a variety of academics, and are merely a representative sample:

There have been many papers published on biochar and plant nutrient cycling.  

For general agriculture, we recommend searching for papers by Milt McGiffen, University of California.  For Vineyards, search articles by or about Hans-Peter Schmitt.  For Fungal Infused Biochar and rapid carbon sequestration search David Johnson and BEAM bioreactor. 

The following citations are merely a representative sample. We will be adding to these citations over time. 

Case study: Comparison of milk composition from adjacent organic and conventional farms in the USA Tunick, Michael H; Van Hekken, Diane L; Paul, Moushumi; Ingham, Elaine R; Karreman, Hubert J; , International journal of dairy technology 2016

Soil biology Ingham, Elaine R; , United States Department of Agriculture Natural Resources Conservation Service. Web 2011

Soil life in reconstructed ecosystems: initial soil food web responses after rebuilding a forest soil profile for a climate change experiment Rygiewicz, Paul T; Monleon, Vicente J; Ingham, Elaine R; Martin, Kendall J; Johnson, Mark G; , Applied soil ecology 2010

A comparison of soil food webs beneath C 3-and C 4-dominated grasslands Dornbush, Mathew; Cambardella, Cynthia; Ingham, Elaine; Raich, James; , Biology and fertility of soils 2008

Two homologous Agr-like quorum-sensing systems cooperatively control adherence, cell morphology, and cell viability properties in Lactobacillus plantarum WCFS1 Fujii, Toshio; Ingham, Colin; Nakayama, Jiro; Beerthuyzen, Marke; Kunuki, Ryoko; Molenaar, Douwe; Sturme, Mark; Vaughan, Elaine; Kleerebezem, Michiel; De Vos, Willem; , Journal of bacteriology 2008

The Compost Tea Brewing Manual Ingham, Elaine; , 2005

The soil food web—soil and compost as living ecosystems Ingham, Elaine R; Slaughter, Matthew D; , First International Conference Soil and Compost Eco-Biology, Leó n, Spain 2004

The Soil Foodweb: It’s Role in Ecosystem Health Ingham, Elaine; , The Overstory Book: Cultivating Connections with Trees 2004
Compost tea Ingham, Elaine; , 2003

Wildlife and the Remediation of Contaminated Soils: Extending the Analysis of Ecological Risks to Habitat Restoration Linder, Greg; Henderson, Gray; Ingham, Elaine; , Handbook of Ecotoxicology, Second Edition 2002

The functional roles of forest soil arthropods: the soil is a lively place Moldenke, Andrew; Pajutee, Maret; Ingham, Elaine; , Proceedings of the California Forest Soils Council Conference on Forest Soils Biology and Forest Management. USDA Forest Service, Pacific Southwest Research Station, Gen Tech Rep PSW-GTR-178, Berkeley, California 2000

Brewing compost tea Ingham, Elaine R; , Kitchen Gardener 2000

Soil Biology Primer Ingham, Elaine; Moldenke, Andrew R; Edwards, Clive Arthur; , 2000

The mycorrhizal colonization of six wetland plant species at sites differing in land use history Ingham, ER; Wilson, MV; , Mycorrhiza 1999
Effects of Klebsiella planticola SDF20 on soil biota and wheat growth in sandy soil Holmes, MT; Ingham, ER; Doyle, JD; Hendricks, CW; , Applied Soil Ecology 1999

Dynamics of soil fungal and bacterial biomass in a temperate climate alley cropping system Seiter, Stefan; Ingham, Elaine R; William, Ray D; , Applied soil ecology 1999

Soil Foodwebs Ingham, Elaine; , US Department of Agricultural Forest Service, General Technical Report PNW 1999

Soil biology and ecology Rygiewicz, Paul T; Ingham, Elaine R; , Environmental Geology 1999

Ectomycorrhizae establishment on Douglas-fir seedlings following chloropicrin treatment to control laminated-root rot disease: Assessment 4 and 5 years after outplanting1 Massicotte, Hugues B; Tackaberry, Linda E; Ingham, Elaine R; Thies, Walter G; , Applied Soil Ecology 1998

Conventional and organic alternatives to methyl bromide on California strawberries Sances, Frank V; Ingham, Elaine R; , Compost science & utilization 1997

Chemistry and microbial activity of forest and pasture riparian-zone soils along three Pacific Northwest streams Griffiths, Robert P; Entry, James A; Ingham, Elaine R; Emmingham, William H; , Plant and Soil 1997

Responses of soil foodweb organisms in the first year following clearcutting and application of chloropicrin to control laminated root rot Ingham, Elaine R; Thies, Walter G; , Applied Soil Ecology 1996

Foundations of biodiversity in managed Douglas-fir forests. Carey, Andrew B; Thysell, David R; Villa, Lisa J; Wilson, Todd M; Wilson, Suzanne M; Trappe, James M; Colgan, W; Ingham, Elaine R; Holmes, Michael; , In: Peterson, DL; Klimas, CV 

The role of restoration in the ecosystem. Proceedings of the 2nd Symposium for ecological restoration. Madison, WI: Society for Ecological Restoration: 68-82 1996

Soil Protozoa Ingham, Elaine R; , Soil Science 1995

Functional diversity of microbial communities: a quantitative approach Zak, John C; Willig, Michael R; Moorhead, Daryl L; Wildman, Howard G; , Soil Biology and Biochemistry 1994

Bioresponse of Nontarget Organisms Resulting from the Use of Chloropicrin to Control Laminated Root Rot in a Northwest Conifer Forest Thies, Walter G; Castellano, Michael A; Ingham, Elaine R; Luoma, Daniel L; Moldenke, Andrew R; , 1991

Comparison of direct vs fumigation incubation microbial biomass estimates from ectomycorrhizal mat and non-mat soils Ingham, ER; Griffiths, RP; Cromack, K; Entry, JA; , Soil Biology and Biochemistry 1991

Seasonal  and faunal effects on decomposition in semiarid prairie, meadow and lodgepole pine forest. Coleman, DC; Ingham, ER; Hunt, HW; Elliott, ET; Reid, CPP; Moore, JC; , Pedobiologia 1990

Use of staining and inhibitors to separate fungal and bacterial activity in soil Stamatiadis, S; Doran, JW; Ingham, ER; , Soil Biology and Biochemistry 1990

An analysis of food-web structure and function in a shortgrass prairie, a mountain meadow, and a lodgepole pine forest Ingham, ER; Coleman, DC; Moore, JC; , Biology and Fertility of Soils 1989

Nitrogen limitation of production and decomposition in prairie, mountain meadow, and pine forest Hunt, HW; Ingham, ER; Coleman, DC; Elliott, ET; Reid, CPP; , Ecology 1988

Interactions between soil animals and ectomycorrhizal fungal mats Cromack Jr, Kermit; Fichter, BL; Moldenke, AM; Entry, JA; Ingham, ER; , Agriculture, ecosystems & environment 1988

Inter-and intraspecific feeding selectivity of Folsomia candida (Willem)(Collembola, Isotomidae) on fungi Moore, JC; Ingham, ER; Coleman, DC; , Biology and Fertility of Soils 1987

The detrital food web in a shortgrass prairie Hunt, HW; Coleman, DC; Ingham, ER; Ingham, RE; Elliott, ET; Moore, JC; Rose, SL; Reid, CPP; Morley, CR; , Biology and Fertility of Soils 1987

Bacterial, fungal and protozoan responses to chloroform fumigation in stored soil Ingham, ER; Horton, KA; , Soil Biology and Biochemistry 1987

Manipulation of bacteria, fungi and protozoa by biocides in lodgepole pine forest soil microcosms: effects on organism interactions and nitrogen mineralization Ingham, ER; Cambardella, C; Coleman, DC; , Canadian journal of soil science 1986

Trophic interactions and nitrogen cycling in a semi-arid grassland soil. I. Seasonal dynamics of the natural populations, their interactions and effects on nitrogen cycling Ingham, ER; Trofymow, JA; Ames, R_N; Hunt, HW; Morley, CR; Moore, JC; Coleman, DC; , Journal of Applied Ecology 1986
Interactions of bacteria, fungi, and their nematode grazers: effects on nutrient cycling and plant growth Ingham, Russell E; Trofymow, JA; Ingham, Elaine R; Coleman, David C; , Ecological monographs 1985


Terroir, Ecology and Climate Farming –  https://symsoil.com/wp-content/uploads/2019/11/biochar_in_vineyards.pdf


Biochar in viticulture – new results http://www.ithaka-journal.net/biokohle-im-weinbau-neueste-resultate?lang=en


Plant growth improvement mediated by nitrate capture in co-composted biochar  https://www.nature.com/articles/srep11080


Organic coating on biochar explains its nutrient retention and stimulation of soil fertility https://www.nature.com/articles/s41467-017-01123-0?ref=marketbulletin


The effects of biochar and compost amendments on copper immobilization and soil microorganisms in a temperate vineyard  https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/S0167880914005398


Microstructural and associated chemical changes during the composting of a high temperature biochar: mechanisms for nitrate, phosphate and other nutrient retention and release https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/S0048969717325512

Biochar Increases the Ion Exchange Capacity of Potting Mix